Virtual Graduation Ceremony

45th Graduation Ceremony

PhD in AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION


Development of Acid Casein Enriched, Stabilizied and Thickened Yoghurt Using Musa Acuminata (Green Banana) and Ensete Ventricosum (Bulla) Flours

Abstract: High acid milk contains coagulated milk proteins, which can be used to stabilize and improve the texture of other milk products. The purpose of the research was to develop and promote fermented milk production technology that used casein derived from high acid, stabilizers like corn-starch and gelatin, and thickeners like green banana/matoke (Musa acuminata) and bulla (Ensete ventricosum) starch powders. The study included a lab-based experiment aimed at creating stabilized, thickened, and acid casein-enhanced yoghurt samples. For a set type of yoghurt, a modelled commercial batch procedure was applied. The nutritive value of yoghurt samples was determined using pH measurement, titratable acidity, crude Protein content determination, carbohydrates determination, butter fat content determination, moisture content determination, and ash content determination. The yoghurt samples' rheological qualities were also determined. Sensory quality and consumer acceptability of stabilized, thickened, and acid casein enriched yoghurt were assessed, as well as small-scale milk processors' willingness to adopt the yoghurt. The yoghurt having acid casein and the yoghurt including skim milk powder did not differ statistically in terms of protein (5.0±1; 5.0±1), carbohydrates (13.5±0.3; 13.8±0.3), or minerals (0.7 0.01; 0.6±0.02). These two yoghurt samples differed in terms of fats (3.3±0.1; 3.0±0.1), moisture (88±1; 85±1), and acidity (1±0.1; 0.7±0.05). In YBA (Yoghurt containing bulla flour and acid casein) and YCA (Yoghurt containing corn starch and acid casein), the acidity value was statistically distinct (0.7±0.05; 0.6±0.05) and lowest. All of the yoghurt samples had the same pH value (4.6± 0.1). The maximum consistency values (8394.39±317.46 g.sec; 8030.25±319.02 g.sec) were found YBAG (Yoghurt containing bulla flour, acid casein and gelatin) and YMAG (Yoghurt containing matoke flour, acid casein and gelatin) respectively. YBAG had the greatest Cohesiveness (-387.09±17.99 g) and Viscosity Index values (-411.14±14.19 g.sec), which were statistically distinct. In Y CONTROL (Yoghurt containing no acid casein or skim milk powder), YB (Yoghurt containing bulla flour), and YBA, whey separation values (9.65±0.02; 9.21±0.03; 9.01±0.01) were statistically distinct and greatest. Overall, the yoghurt samples with bulla and matoke flours were the most liked. Small scale milk processors’ (SMEs) willingness to adopt the novel fermented milk product was satisfactory. In yoghurt processing, matoke and bulla flours have been proven to be efficient thickeners and acid casein, a stabilizer and replacement for skim milk powder. SMEs and farmers should attend training sessions to improve their knowledge of locally produced value-added dairy products such as the developed yoghurt.

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